120 Records Found

Shifting agriculture locally known as jhum is the predominant form of agriculture used by the local tribe of the north-eastern hill region of India. There is also some valley rice cultivation and terrace cultivation. The structure and some functions] aspects of these three agro-ecosystem types are discussed and compared. The 30 year jhum cycle has the advantage over the 10 or 5 year cycle apart from higher yields, in that the monetary output/input ratio under a 30 year jhum cycle is comparativel...

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The role of lesser-known crops, Digitaria cruciata (Nees) A. Camus var. esculenta Bor., Flemingia vestita Benth ex Bax. and Perilla ocimoides L. cultivated by the Khasis at higher elevations of Meghayala, and Amaranthus viridis L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Coix lacrymajobi L., Dioscorea spp., Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., Panicum miliaceum L., Perilla ocimoides and Setaria italica (L.) Beauv. cultivated by the Nishis, the Hill Miris and the Sulungs of Arunachal Pradesh in north-east India wer...

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The ecological and economic efficiencies of land-use systems, animal husbandry and domestic sub-systems of three tribal (Garo, Khasi and Mikir) and one non-tribal (Nepali} communities living in the same area, at lower elevations of Meghalaya in north-east India, were evaluated. The economic efficiency of slash and burn agriculture (jhum) by the Garos was more efficient than that of the Khasis or the Mikirs, because of higher labour input and the crop mixture used by the Garos. On the other hand,...

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A rich diversity of traditional crops occurs generally in the Himalaya and more particularly in Central Himalaya. Over forty species of food grains are grown in traditional agroecosystems of Central Himalaya, which have been managed by the local farming communities since time immemorial. These traditional crop varieties have evolved over centuries and are well adapted to the particular area. A number of edaphic, topographic and climatic factors associated with different selection pressures over ...

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The Subsistence agricultural systems of the Central Himalaya harbour a huge variety of traditional crops and cultivars. However, a recent survey conducted in 150 different villages located along an elevational transect ofAlaknanda catchment of Central Himalaya reveals that over a period of two decades (1970-74 and 1990-94) the cultivated area under many traditional crops has declined precariously due to various reasons. Many crops are facing danger of complete extinction and consequently the eco...

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Shifting cultivation (jhooming) has been identified as one of the main human impacts influencing biodiversity in Tripura, Northeast India. Over the last few years a new class of shifting cultivators has emerged that has adopted non-traditional forms of jhooming, which have been responsible for the loss of biological diversity in the state. This paper describes the successes achieved by the state government in providing the jhumias (tribes practicing jhooming) with various non-jhooming options. R...

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Describes the indigenous methods of water conservation and irrigation water management in the region Water management in the central Himalayan agriculture is confronted by too-much and-too-little water syndrome. Monsoon pattern of rainfall leads to runoff, washing away soil and nutrients from the tiny terraces, leaving rest of the year dry. This situation limits rainwater management in the rainfed agriculture. Under the irrigated agriculture, however, people practice intensive water management....

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Terrace farming is practised in the UttarKhand district of middle Himalayas. The people in this region developed the farming and the life style to suit the local climate. People had developed ?Fasal Chakra? - Crop Circles. Modern agriculture tried to destroy the tradition of mixed cropping in this area, but could not succeed.

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Farming and tourism are the primary livelihood options for mountain people in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan region. Tourism in Sikkim, a small Indian state in the eastern Himalaya, has become popular only since 1990; the main focus is on ecotourism. Only a small segment of the population is engaged in this sector, however. More than 80% of the population depends on agriculture. The developmental measures of the ?green revolution? implemented in other Indian states were not successful in the Himalayan...

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The tribal societies of different states of NEH regions with long history and traditions have developed ingenious indigenous land and water management systems which have built-in ecofriendly systems of conservation, preservation, and utilization of natural resources. The systems described include 'zabo' farming system, agriculture with Alder Tree and ' Panikheti ' of terraced rice fields of Nagaland, water management in Apatani Plateau of Arunachal Pradesh, rice-cum-fish culture of Arunachal Pra...

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We describe the diversity and dynamism of social, agricultural, and livestock husbandry practices in a traditional mountain production system in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. These are interpreted in the context of their role in mediating environmental risk. The production system is a little known Buddhist agropastoral system in the high altitude Spiti Valley (agriculture up to 4450 m, livestock grazing 4900 m, total area ca. 12,000 km2) in the Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh. The local populat...

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In the central Himalayan mountains a rich heritage of traditional methods for water conservation exists. A whole range of indigenous methods is in practice to store and use water for irrigation and other household purposes. These methods are cost-effective and involve the use of locally available material and human skill to construct the water harvesting structures. People follow some traditional norms with regard to the quantity of irrigation water and schedule / frequency of irrigation for the...

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Land-use change has important implications for sustainable livelihood of local communities where traditional crop–livestock mixed farming is sustained with local inputs. Knowledge of recent changes in land use, driving forces and implications of changes within the context of sustainable development is limited. This study analyses the changes in spatial patterns of agricultural land use, crop diversity, manure input, yield, soil loss and run-off from cropland, and dependence of agroecosystems on ...

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This paper studies the crop biodiversity and its changing patterns across an altitudinal gradient of three highland village agroecosystems: Hinsa (2700m), Jahlma (3000m) and Khoksar (3200 m). It also deals with energy (kilocalorie (physiological); kcal or Megajoules; MJ) and monetary (Indian rupee; Rs) efficiency of traditional crops versus recently introduced cash crops in the cold desert of the Lahaul valley. Newly introduced cash crops like hop, pea and potato have drastically reduced the cro...

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Apatani, a hill tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India, has been practising rice fish culture traditionally for many decades. Their practice, locally termed aji ngui assonii, is free from the use of agrochemicals and additional input of supplementary feed for fish. They basically follow the traditional agronomic practices for rice even in ricefish combination pertaining to field preparation and maintenance. Field preparation starts in April, occasionally continues up to late May, and rice seedlings a...

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The present study was conducted in the southern part of East Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya dominated by tribe Khasi Wars where maximum land is under Areca nut plantation. Areca nut seedlings are seriously damaged by the grubs of a red palm weevil which kill the whole seedling. However, the Wars farmers with their traditional wisdom easily detect the infested seedlings and with their indigenous practices of ?checking the grubs in nuts? locally known as ?peit ksain kwai? control the damage of ...

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Jhum (slash and burn cultivation) is an age-old system of agriculture among the indigenous groups in the humid tropics. The Jhumias make use of the local ecological and environmental conditions to their advantage. The natural indicators, their magico-religious beliefs, and analogy & faith condition their decision-making. Worships, rituals, myths and folktales also govern their land and resource use. The entire gamut of their socio-cultural life is thus woven around Jhum that is not merely an =Ag...

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The tribal communities of North East India have paddy-cum-fish farming along with shifting cultivation (Jhum). Paddy-cum-fish cultivation is practiced mainly by Apatanis, a progressive agricultural community of Arunachal Pradesh. The Apatani version of paddy cultivation is one of the most advanced cultivation practices. The main advantage from the practice is that, the land gives sustained yield year after year, unlike the Jhum system, that is under cropping only once in a few years of fallow in...

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Himalayan mountain system is distinguished globally for a rich biodiversity and for its role in regulating the climate of the South Asia. Traditional crop-livestock mixed farming in the Himalaya is highly dependent on forests for fodder and manure prepared from forest leaf litter and livestock excreta. Apart from sustaining farm production, forests provide a variety of other tangible and intangible benefits, which are critical for sustainable livelihood of not only 115 million mountain people, b...

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Agricultural practices are the main stay of the people of Uttranchal. Out of the total population, more than 75% people are engaged either with the main occupation of agriculture or its allied practices, dominated by traditional subsistence cereal farming. Among them, the main crops are rice, wheat, millet, barley, all types of pulses, all types of oilseeds and almost all types of fruits. The crops, vegetables and fruits of all varieties are grown in the different climatic zones such as tropical...

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The role of Indigenous and tribal peoples and their traditional environmental knowledge (TEK) is now greatly appreciated and recognized in developing location specific strategies and mitigation plans for coping with climate change. The goal of this research, based on six years of collaborative work with Adi tribal peoples from 14 villages of East and Upper Siang districts of Arunachal Pradesh, was to record Adi knowledge and experiences relating to biocultural resources and their interactions wi...

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Transhumance system of livelihood of the Brokpa pastoral nomads inhabiting in the yak tracts of Arunachal Pradesh with special emphasis on climate change adaptation was assessed in the present study. A representative sample of the 240 Brokpa pastoral nomads from all the yak rearing tracts of Arunachal Pradesh was selected randomly. The Brokpa pastoral nomads mainly depend upon livestock, like yak, yak-cattle hybrid etc, rearing for their livelihood. They perceived that season cycle has been chan...

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The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting and assessing the potential of indigenous knowledge towards adaptation to climate change covering a sample of 200 farmers, hundred each from Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan representing Himalayan and Arid ecosystems respectively. Documentation of ITK was done using both primary and secondary source of information. In-depth study was designed by combining survey and anthropological approach of participant study. The major documented...

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Traditional knowledge has only recently touched the scientific chord of western academic knowledge. More and more researchers today are turning towards it not only to fill gaps in existing societal knowledge but also to find novel knowledge concepts and viewpoints for application in a contemporary context. Since tribal groups have lived within their local environments since time immemorial it is obvious that they do possess a rich knowledge about nature. Hence, research on nature and environment...

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Indigenous knowledge refers to the age old refined methods and practices developed by previous numerous generations from an advanced understanding of the local environment, to save their belongings and lives from any future natural disaster. The local people observe signs in the environment which allow them to take precautions before a disaster occurs. This knowledge contains several other important characteristics which distinguish it from other types of knowledge. All such knowledge include ev...

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Studies on fish attractant especially in fresh water fish are very scanty. Tribal people, who practice fish attractant against the escapement of fish during inundation of ponds during flood, mainly inhabit the Karbi-Anglong district of Assam. This fish attractant is made from locally available ingredients such as rice bran, oil cake, Jubulee, etc. The practice is quite popular among the fishers in Karbi-Anglong. On verification of the efficacy of this indigenous method, it was observed that as m...

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Use of plant, Polygonum hydropiper Linn. (Smartweed) as fish toxicant by the tribal people of Karbi-Anglong district of Assam for catching fish from natural aquatic resources as well as for removal of uneconomical fishes from the aquaculture pond has been discussed. Indigenous Technical Knowledge on aquaculture has generously been passed on to newer generation by older ones. Plant’s botanical identity, local name, family, plant parts used, therapeutic uses and mode of application of the drug hav...

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The state of Arunachal Pradesh is known for its rich bioresources and ethnocultural diversity. Ethnobiological survey was conducted during 2001-2003 in Hill Miri dominated districts of Arunachal Pradesh, which reveals their hidden Indigenous Knowledge System. Fishing and hunting is one of the major economic activities of this hilly tribe apart from Jhum cultivation. They derive their fish protein diet requirement directly from the wild sources. Two major rivers and number of its tributaries form...

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Most of the inhabitants of the Hills Zone of Assam survive on their traditional knowledge base. These people are bound by traditions and are relatively untouched by modem scientific knowledge on aquaculture and allied sector. An attempt has been made in present study to document Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) related to aquaculture in the Hills Zone of Assam. Data was collected after interviewing 80 fishers in one of such areas with the help of an interview schedule. In Pond construction/m...

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A study carried out to assess existing basic knowledge and perceptions of farmers on fish farming in Uttarakhand Himalayas during 2003-08 indicated prevalence of as many as 16 mythical superstitions on fish identification, features of fishponds and various attributes of fishes or fish farming among farmers adding to already existing problems of fisheries development in the region. Preference for deeper fishponds or water harvesting structures (WHS) and coldwater river fishes against farmed or wa...

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The Northeast frontier of India, which has been ranked 6th among the top 25 biodiversity spot in the world demonstrates the absolute dependence of men on nature. Riverine fishery resources of these states comprise 19,150 km of streams and rivers with diversified fish fauna, having both torrential and plain forms but still the old traditional methods of fishing are prevalent and most of the practices followed are primitive and outdated as there is no new and reliable technology available. Some of...

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Garhwal Himalaya is known for its rich bio-resources and ethnocultural diversity. Ethnobiological survey was conducted in different hilly districts of Uttarakhand which reveals their Indigenous Traditional Knowledge (ITK) in fish capture. Fishing is one of the important sources of animal protein for the people of hilly region. In the study, a total of 13 plants, which are significantly used as fish toxicant by local people in the aquatic resources of the Garhwal region have been listed. Plant’s ...

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Several herbal materials have been in use for alluring fish during harvest and angling by traditional farmers in different parts of India. Experiments were conducted using behavioural trough to evaluate 10 herbs collected from Tripura state as feed attractants on post larvae of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and fingerlings of Indian major carps catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala). The herbs used in the study are jatamansi, ekangi, latkhan...

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Most of the inhabitants of the Karbi-Anglong district of Assam, survive on their traditional knowledge base. Livelihood of the people is bound by traditions and the community in general is relatively untouched by modern scientific knowledge on fisheries and allied sector. Documentation and compilation of indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) is of great importance. In the study, a total of 100 fishermen from four blocks were interviewed using pre-tested interview schedule. Accordingly, the study ...

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Harvesting of fish using piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants has been a common practice by the tribal people of Nagaland. The present study documents the piscicidal plants and their usage based on the information acquired from the local community. Many of these plants besides piscicidal property possess other therapeutic properties which are used in traditional medicines. Seventeen piscicidal plants which are traditionally used for fish catching and in preparation of local medicine from the state...

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Traditional knowledge base rheostats the livelihood of inhabitants of Tripura. Fishers’ community of the state are precisely innovative and skilful to use traditional knowledge in fish culture and its management. The study attempted at compilation and documentation of indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) related to pond maintenance, fish health management and fish seed. The objective was achieved through primary survey using semi-structure interview method at village level. 160 farmers from 16 v...

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Fisheries in Tripura form an integral part of the economy of the state. Indigenous technical knowledge in the field of fish farming is a practical knowledge of the local farmers of this district. This is based on intimate experience accumulated over generation after generation. Such traditional practices were sustainable in terms of land use, utilization of local available materials, labour, money, and could be easily operated without any specially skills. The study was conducted in the villages...

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In the present study, endeavor was been made to document the different types of traditional fish aggregating devices (FADs) being practiced by the fishermen from the study area and to explore the fishers’ rationale behind their use. Looking into the nature of the study, the information was collected by personal interviews, field observations and conducting focus group discussions with 10-12 practicing fishermen of the meitei community, Manipur state. The study explored a unique traditional fish ...

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Central valley region of Manipur harbours great ichthyofaunal diversity; diverse fisheries resources, thus uses wide array of fishing methods which are evolved traditionally and being practiced extensively throughout the central valley. Some of the practices are unique to certain area such as the Loktak lake. The different traditional fishing methods presently being practiced by the fishermen are broadly categorized into major and minor fishing gears. In present paper an attempt has been made to...

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Fishing with traditional devices is an old age practice followed by fisher folk of Tripura. The present fishing technique and devices are the results of knowledge and experience gained the fishing community from the ancestors. The documentation of these practices and devices are important for their development on scientific line and for betterment of fishing community. Hence an attempt has been made to study existing the fishing methods, designs, structures and operations of fishing gears of Tri...

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A traditional community fishing practiced by the Nocte tribe of Tirap district, Arunachal Pradesh in Namsang stream is discussed. The objective of the present study is to bring out detailed information about this indigenous fishing method. In this practice, fishes are caught in the lower reaches by obstructing water flow of the stream. Fishes in their attempt to overcome this obstruction ultimately got trapped. The study revealed that community fishing is a part of the cultural heritage of the N...

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Fermented fish products are popular in the North east India because of their characteristic flavour and aroma. Telesech is a local name of salt-free fermented Setipinna phasa which is very popular amongst the people of Tripura in general. Higher cost of imported dry punti fish as well as high production cost and retail price of punti shidal necessitated the development of telesech from estuarine fish Setipinna phasa. The traditional method of its production has been studied and the biochemical, ...

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The paper reports and analyses the findings of Traditional Ecological Knowledge associated with fish harvesting practices of War Khasi community, a sub tribe of Khasi, inhabiting southern slopes of Meghalaya. The study area has a forested landscape and harbours dense network of streams and rivers, viz. Wah Umsong, Wah Umsi, Wah Umshrei, Wah Umkhat, Wah Durit and Wah Umjar. These rivers and their associated water bodies are impregnated with a variety of fish and other aquatic life forms, which c...

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An indigenous community fishing practiced by the Wancho tribe of Tirap district, Arunachal Pradesh in Tissa river is described. In this practice, fishing was facilitated in the pool zones of the hill stream by making the stream water muddy. Fishes gasping for air in muddy waters is then caught using cast nets operated from indigenous bamboo rafts (4.6-6.1 m long and 1.1-1.4 m wide). The study revealed that community fishing is a part of the cultural heritage of the Wancho tribe of Tirap district...

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High altitude habitat of yak (Poephagus grunniens L.) remains covered with snow for 5-6 months in a year, and it is considered that yak’s natural environment is almost quarantine in disease free zone. But due to the change of socio-economic scenario of pastoral community, yaks are being reared with cattle in semi pastoral system. As a result incidence of almost all the common ailments and diseases of cattle has been reported in the yak tracks of India. For some diseases and ailments they adopted...

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This paper outline the indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) possessed by farmers of Kathua district of Jammu & Kashmir, India, which is largely dependent on the traditional/indigenous animal husbandry practices for treatment of animals. The study was aimed to document various ITKs related to healthcare management of dairy animals and to validate the ITKs practiced for pneumonia treatment. Data were collected through personal interviews and focus group discussions with selected group of the Dogra...

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The study was conducted in the Doda district of Jammu and Kashmir state (India) to create a database of the indigenous technical knowledge practices used by the pastoralists for the treatment of animal diseases. The data was collected with the help of a structured interview schedule through personal interview technique. Sixty indigenous technical knowledge practices were identified and documented. A total of 38 species of plants and ingredients used for treatment of 24 different ailments were do...

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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Camel is an important mode of transportation in the hot and hilly tracts of Shiwaliks of Kathua districts. The camel owners of the region lack the modern veterinary facilities and therefore depend heavily upon local treatments for the animal. This ethnoveterinary knowledge of plants is acquired by them from their forefathers and generally moves from one generation to another orally. The oral mode of transferring this valuable knowledge is vulnerable to erosion wit...

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The Indian Central Himalaya supports about four million livestock population which play a vital role in the livelihood of the natives. In this remote ecosystem, where modern veterinary infrastructure is very poor both quantitatively and qualitatively the locals have evolved indigenous health care practices to maintain their livestock population. The practices based on locally available biorcsources, are effective in healing diseases, do not have financial cost and arc easily administrable. Throu...

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The Kashmir Himalayan Mountains are endowed with a diverse plant wealth. In this region, the Bakerwals and other migratory herders and shepherds utilize herbal therapies for treatment of their livestock. Information on these plants used for veterinary practices was obtained through interviews of herders, shepherds, and others that work with farm animals during the period of 1997 through 2001. A total of 25 plants within 19 families was identified for treatment of a variety of animal afflictions.

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Most of the people of south-eastern part of the Chamoli district, Uttaranchal live in remote areas and usually depend on the traditional medicines. The present investigation has brought to light some popular and frequently used prescription for domestic animals. In all, 72 plants important in ethnoveterinary, their mode of preparations and applications to the diseases and disorders are given.

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Animals are reared under two systems, viz. the sedentary and the migratory/ transhumant in Chamba district. The fodder needs of the animals are met through traditional feed resources, but the migratory system of animal rearing is totally dependent on grazing in natural grasslands. The grasslands have been infested with numerous poisonous plants, causing poisoning to animals due to heavy grazing. Some of these poisonous plants are quite fatal and are major causes of livestock mortality and morbid...

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The people residing in Darma valley known as Darmi or Darmi Bhotiyas have great wisdom of traditional knowledge about the animal husbandry and veterinary practices. They cure their animals with the help of surrounding natural resources such as plants, animals, minerals, etc. They produce traditionally hybrids of yak and local cow. However, these practices are in danger of extinction because of the rapid modernization. The paper documents the traditional veterinary practices and animal husbandry ...

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This communication carries valuable information on 31 species of ethno-veterinary plants, commonly used for the treatment of domestic animals by local people of Bhabar region

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Cattle farming is one the most income generating occupation of the tribals of Manipur, Northeast India. Chiru tribe of Manipur has been depending on cattle farming for livelihood since long time back. This tribe of Manipur is repository of rich ethnoveterinary knowledge of plants. The study aims at exploring the ethnoveterinary plants associated with this particular tribe. As a result of this study, 36 plant species and genera belonging to 29 families used for treating as many as 17 ailments of ...

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The triangle of relationship between human beings, animals and plants has existed for ages, and has given rise to intense-relationships and consequently rich traditions of ethnoveterinary knowledge throughout the world. The predominantly rural population and the strong agricultural base have provided unique situation for rich ethnoveterinary practices in the study area. Aim of the study: The present study was conducted in the Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir between 2007 and 2009 to provide...

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A field survey was done to study and document the indigenous knowledge of various ethnic groups of Sikkim regarding animal healthcare. The hills of Sikkim Himalaya are inhabited by number of ethnic groups. They use medicinal plants not only for human being but also for their domestic animals. Large number of plants has been collected and the information on their ethnoveterinary uses was gathered from local inhabitants. The information about folk medicinal use, vernacular names of plants and the ...

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The present paper highlights the indigenous knowledge on the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used by the Gujjar community of Sub-Himalayan tracts in Garhwal Himalaya. This tribe is a nomadic one, lives with their livestock’s in the forests, roaming from one place to other in different habitats. Their herds of livestock constituted a substantive role, as their economy is totally dependent on selling milk and other dairy products. They are dependent on the surrounding vegetational wealth for the ...

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Field work was conducted to document the ethnoveterinary medicine used by members of the indigenous community in Sikkim Himalayas, India, in order to treat ailments of their livestock. This research detailed the use of 37 medicinal plants to treat ailments in animals such as diarrhea, dysentery, digestive disorders, injury, wound, fever, maternity complications, skin disease, urinary problems, cough and cold, skeleto-muscular disorders, inflammation, scorpion sting, snake and insect bite, weakne...

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Ethnoveterinary medicine is the holistic interdisciplinary study of the local knowledge and the socio-cultural structures and environment associated with animal healthcare and husbandry. The investigation is aimed at clearing some facts and Indian concepts of ethnoveterinary science. The paper deals with 23 household plants and plant products which are used in the treatment of animal diseases by local people and tribes of Uttarakhand.

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Drug research has enriched human life in many ways. The health care and resulting social and economic benefits of new drugs to society are most remarkable, are quite well recognized. Drug research has been the driving force for many basic scientific developments, such as that of many new synthetic methods, of the understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of biological systems and has contributed much too molecular recognition. The Uttarakhand Himalayas have a great wealth of medicinal pla...

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Indigenous ways of conserving the animals through adoption of traditional breeding methods, classifying the breeds, diagnosing the diseases, and preventing the disorders and diseases by using locally available ethnoveterinary practices is still found to be rational and predominant in the remote places in India plays a pivotal role in conserving the animals’ diversity. This research address the facets of traditional yak breeding systems and healthcare management using indigenous knowledge system...

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A preliminary survey of an age-old veterinary practice of the western part of Almora district, which is inhabited by hill communities, was made. The main emphasis was given to 24 most common livestock diseases and disorders. For the treatment of these veterinary diseases and disorders, locals use about 57 plants. The biomedicines are composed of single drug or combination of drugs. These medicines are presented disease wise. This type of traditional knowledge is a wealth for the human being and ...

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Indigenous technical knowledge in animal healthcare practices was documented in the Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh by using participatory rural appraisal technique (PRA). Among the documented indigenous practices, foot and mouth disease, diarrhoea, tympany, cold, fever, skin diseases, conjunctivitis, wound and eaten placenta were primarily treated with medicinal plants along with other materials available with the farmers. In the opinion of the experts, these practices could be recommended ...

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The study reveals that the people of the Uttaranchal state use 364 plants species in ethnoveterinary practices. Bhotiyas, Boxas, Tharus, Jaunsaris and Rhajis are the tribal groups inhabiting in Uttaranchal. Analysis of data indicates that information on 163 plants is significant as it provides some new information of the ethnoveterinary uses. The study is expected to provide basic data for further studies aimed at conservation of traditional medicine and economic welfare of rural people at the s...

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Arunachal Pradesh is a tribal state, inhabited by 26 major tribes and 105 sub-tribes. Monpa is one of the major tribe inhabiting mainly in Tawang and West Kameng Districts entity and claim themselves Indo-Bhutan and Indo-Tibet in origin. In-spite of their ritual concepts in Buddhist culture use of animals as food and therapeutic use is not uncommon. Present communi-cation deals with the diversity of use pattern of wild fauna as food item, therapeutic and medicinal purpose and in socio-cultural p...

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The present paper describes the traditional method of treating various kinds of ailments using different vertebrates and invertebrates and/or their products by different Naga tribes. Since different Naga tribes have their own distinct language and vernacular of a particular animal differs from one tribe to other. Efforts have been made to identify different animals of medicinal value used by Naga tribes and decode their names in common English language along with their local and zoological names...

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The paper explored the diversity of edible insects, collection patterns and temporal availability in the West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. The district is inhabited by the Galo, Adi, Memba and Khamba tribes. However, the study only explored the ethnozoology of Galo tribe. The study reveals that the community consumed a total of 12 species belonging majorly to Hymenopterans and Hemipteran order, excluding 4 unidentified species belonging to 10 genera and 8 families. Consu...

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Northeast India harbors rich floral and faunal biodiversity. In their co-existence with the surrounding faunal resources, the native communities of the region have accumulated a rich body of ethno-zoological knowledge, which is now threatened due to globalization and other forces. In view of the importance of Ethnozoological resources in food, medicine and health, it has investigated and documented the vanishing Ethnozoological knowledge from different tribal communities of Arunachal and Mizoram...

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Background: Since outside the tribal areas of North-East India it is not widely known, neither in the world nor in India itself, that rats are considered a delicious food item, this was one of several reasons why we decided to present this ethnographic account of rat procurement and preparation (together with some additional comments on the cultural role that rats have especially amongst members of the Adi tribe). Consumption of rats by humans as a biological control method far superior to the u...

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The Traditional knowledge of a community in a particular region is derived from the local people's farming experience and is handed down from previous generations to present generations. It entails many insights, perceptions, and intuitions, relating to agricultural practices, health, local environment, etc. It is often stressed that traditional storage methods are the product of decades, if not centuries of development, perhaps by trial and error, but certainly as a result of experience of the ...

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Rodents are important storage pest of NEH region due to availability of congenial habitat. The farmers of West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh with their years of wisdom have been using an indigenous method of rat proof granary called Nahu in Adi language. The study reveals three scientific features of this structure used as rat proof grain storage. Use of stone pad at the bottom, wooden plate at the middle and airtight compartment at the top makes it a unique and innovative storage structur...

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There has been a paradigm shift in recent years towards the use of natural, reliable, and sustainable products in grain protection; from the conventional use of synthetic toxic substances. The role of traditional knowledge in storage protection is being increasingly realized across the globe. The age-old traditional post-harvest pest management methods practiced by 6 indigenous communities in three hill districts of Meghalaya and Manipur of Northeast India, Garo, Mao, Maram, Poumai, Thadou and T...

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In Uttarakhand Himalaya traditional agriculture is the mere way to meet the subsistence needs of the local farming communities. In traditional system of agriculture, local seed material of traditional crop varieties plays an important role for crop production. In such a situation, the protection of seed material and its conservation for future needs is also of very paramount importance. In order to protect the seed material and food grains, local practices by using indigenous plant material and...

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The indigenous knowledge of the people in Ladakh for storage of selected vegetables is unique. Vegetable cultivation in Ladakh during winter is not practiced due to sub-zero temperature. To meet the vegetable needs during winter, tribal people in the region has gained wisdom in storage of selected crops like cabbage, potato, onion, radish and carrot, which comply well with the ecological and socioeconomic conditions of the region. Cabbage is stored in basement of house, tuber and root crops in ...

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Handloom weaving and handicraft are the cultural heritage of the Himachali people and an indispensable part of the lives of Kulluites. The activity of preparing a vide range of handloom and handicraft products was originated to suffice local needs but it gradually took a turn towards commercialization. In the study, handloom and handicrafts of district Kullu of Himachal Pradesh have been presented. The local weavers besides following their ancestral traditions and skills are intentionally making...

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The tribal people of Himachal Pradesh are living close to forests and facing unfavorable climatic conditions. Gaddi, the semi-agricultural tribe of Bharmaur area of Chamba district is identifiable due to their typical dress comprising topi, chola and dora. They sport a hukah (smoking pipe) in their hand and khalri containing cereals and other essential articles on their back. Due to tough topography and harsh climate, these people have developed their unique handicrafts, which is still manufactu...

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The women living in remote areas and dependent on traditional resources have developed appreciating knowledge and skill in weaving and making crafts for their subsistence livelihood in mountain ecosystems. In modernization and rapid acculturation process, this culturally important heritage of women is at risk and eroding. Varieties of culturally and traditionally important dresses are weaved by Adi women. Women are competent in selecting diverse plant biodiversity used in making entire set of ge...

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Jambili Athon is an extraordinary woodcraft of the Karbis, made entirely from Bengwoi ke-er (Wrightia coccinea Sims. (Apocynaceae), whose origin and making of the craft is strictly based on legends. It consists of a central axis and a whorl of four branches, all with beautiful carvings on it and the apices are perched with different species of birds. Jambili Athon is exhibited during socio-religio-cultural festival, Chomkan, during crowning ceremony of social chief, the Lindokpo and also to hono...

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There are a myriad of craft traditions in India, which depend on social, economic and regional factors. The present status of craft in India owes much to the rich craft traditions of the past. The tribals of Himachal Pradesh are well known within and outside the country for the fabrication of woollen clothes of several kinds like shawls, pattus, patties, lahang etc. Kullu shawls like Manipuri and Naga shawls are very popular all over the country (Chauhan et al. 1989). Owing to rough terrain and ...

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Sikkim is a state having very old and deep rooted handloom and handicraft traditions. Handloom weaving, thanka painting, wooden mask making, wood curving are typical of Sikkim. All these traditional handloom and handicrafts are described.

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Sericulture is one of the oldest professions the humane developed and practiced. Weaving as a craft also developed independently in ancient China, India, and Thailand as well as in the Middle East, Europe, Africa and in South America. The process of working out new techniques continued for millennia and continues even today. With the change from subsistence farming to the present commercial system and incorporation of mechanical technology have brought in drastic changes in both sericulture and ...

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Hand woven textiles have always been a rich source of one’s tradition. In the Northeast region of India, each tribe or community has its own specific designs and motifs. Manipur enjoys a distinct place amongst textiles zones in India. Women folk are practicing weaving in Manipur. The crafts is woven with culture and spiritual beliefs of the natives of Manipur since time immemorial. But due to social changes incorporated with modern technology, the traditional hand woven textiles of Manipur are ...

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Traditional costumes are often adorned with designs depicting indigenous flora and fauna, objects and even some abstract figures. Filed study was undertaken with the objective to elucidate the traditional knowledge on weaving and to find out the intrinsic relationships between biological objects and cultural artifacts during 2002-2008 among the Karbis following unstructured interview and through personal observations by the authors. Motifs and designs are weaved or embodied following certain ind...

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The present study was an attempt to study the tribal textiles and costumes of Meghalaya which was almost non-existent and has reached the verge of extinction in the name of change. The objectives of the study were to document the yarns, looms, colors, motifs and costumes worn for different occasions. Data was gathered through personal interviews coupled with observation method from purposive selected samples and photographs were taken to support the study. Weaving of these two tribes was the mon...

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Since centuries, the handicraft industry is running successfully in beautiful valley of Kashmir. Among handicrafts, shawl industry has gained popularity all over the world for the way these shawls are being prepared. Shawl making in Kashmir is an age old practice over which the artisans have expertise themselves over generations. The shawls prepared from Pashmina fibre are liked by all irrespective of their age, sex and nation. From ages, Pashmina shawls are being prepared in the valley by tradi...

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The Sumok thyaktuk or Lepcha traditional hat is an oldest form of craft, unique and exclusive to the Lepcha tribe living in the Dzongu Tribal Reserve Area (DTRA) of Sikkim. The hat is intricately woven with the Ru or cane (Calamus acanthospathus), Po-young – local bamboo (Cephalostachyum capitatum). Each part of the hat and its artistic design hold its own traditional meaning and significance. The hat formed the headgear of the royal soldiers later on Sikkim Guard during the regime of Chogyal dy...

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The Yak Pastoralists, known as the Brokpas, of Arunachal Pradesh are expert craftsmen making all the items of their daily utility for processing and storing yak products by themselves. The wood and bamboo processing techniques, adopted by them are a complex set of processes embodying Traditional Indigenous Technological Knowledge. This Paper is an initiative to understand and document these handicraft skills of the Brokpa community. The crafting patterns of bamboo milk churner, storing boxes, ba...

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The Nagas, inhabitants of Nagaland, are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock. Unlike other parts of India, where much of the spinning and weaving, is in the hands of men, in Nagaland it is exclusively the monopoly of women. They mainly weave shawls and mekhalas which range from a simple white cloth to elaborately designed ones. These textiles are mainly produced only for their own consumption and available in the local markets. These textile products require more visibility, which can be a...

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In the present paper traditional weaving and related knowledge system of purposively selected villages are discussed, and in this connection eight plant species are reported, which are used in weaving handloom. Kom tribe of Manipur has very rich traditional knowledge of crafts. These are the living testimonies of their traditional knowledge and aesthetic value, which they have inherited from their predecessors. The art of handloom weaving and the techniques they use are indeed admirable. But the...

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In Manipur, traditional fermented soybean (Hawaijar), bamboo shoot products (Soibum/Soijim, Soidon), fish products (Ngari, Hentak), mustard leaf extract (Ziang Sang, Ziang Dui) and fermented beverages, viz. Atingba and fruit wines have been consumed as a regular food in different recipes over a long period of time. These household arts are handed down through generation by generation. In the study, the traditional preparation processes of fermented foods of Manipur were documented.

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Several ethnic communities of Northeast India have invented the traditional technology of converting protein rich soybeans into flavoured fermented food with easy digestibility and bio-nutrients. This is exclusively carried out by the ethnic women in Sikkim, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. Worth native knowledge of these women has been documented and six sticky fermented soybean foods have been listed out which include kinema, hawaijar, tungrymbai, aakhone, bekang an...

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Ladakh, truly described as high altitude cold-arid desert is one of the far most eastern regions of J&K state, India. Because of unfavourable and hostile environment prevailing over the region, cultivation is limited to a very less scale (both time and place). Under these conditions, one of the major reasons behind human habitation is the ingenuity of local people, who has devised new and sustainable way of living. One major product of this ingenuity is the traditional foods and beverages, which...

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Tungrymbai is a fermented indigenous soybean food, common to the ethnic tribes of Meghalaya. The microbial diversity in this food is studied to assess the nature of microbes and their source during spontaneous fermentation. The microorganisms associated with this fermented food are also present in the equipment and materials used during preparation and packing. Various species of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and spore forming forms were recovered in the isolation process which included Bacillus ...

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In view of changing of food habits of local communities of Uttarakhand Himalaya, a study to document the native plant genetic resources of food importance and traditional recipes was conducted. Both cultivated and wild edible plant species were documented through scheduled interviews. With the help of respondents the questionnaires were filled up. After conducting the survey in the whole Uttarakhand state the plant species of food importance were identified and a large number of traditional food...

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Ethnic people of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China (Tibet) prepare various types of indigenous meat products using their traditional knowledge. Some of these ethnic meat products as sausages, dried or smoked meats are sold in local markets contributing local economy. There is no literature on traditional processing of indigenous meat products of the Himalayas. The paper is aimed to document the traditional knowledge of the ethnic Himalayan people on preparation of various t...

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Himachal Pradesh, a hilly state, has lot of variation in recipes prepared by local people. The communication deals with traditional recipes of district Kangra as per seasonal availability of plant material. Although food habits of local people have changed these days, still they relish the local preparations. Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques were used for documentation of required information. The plant material used by the people for recipes included its leaves, flowers, stem, fruits an...

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The Nepalis of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal and Bhutan prepare a cereal-based fermented food, Selroti using their indigenous knowledge. The paper documents the traditional knowledge of the ethnic Himalayan people on preparation of Selroti and its ethnical importance.

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Some cereal based traditional alcoholic beverages, Chhang, Lugari, Aara and Chiang consumed by people of Lahaul and Spiti area of Himachal Pradesh were documented and explored microbiologically. All these beverages were made by cooking their grains and then inoculating them with inocula called Phab/ Dhaeli. Chemical analysis of these products showed an acidic nature with pH in the range of 3.31-4.02 in undistilled samples, and 3.95-5.17 in distilled samples. Total soluble solids in all the undis...

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Fermented products form an intrinsic part of the diet of the tribal peoples in northeastern India. This study describes the preparation methods and the nutritive value of fermented soybean (tungrymbai), bamboo (lungsiej), and fish (tungtap) consumed by the Khasi tribes from Meghalaya in northeastern India. Results of the analysis are reported on a dry matter basis. Analysis showed that tungtap was a good source of protein (40.6 g/100g), calcium (5040 mg/100g), phosphorus (1930 mg/100 g), sodium ...

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The high altitude Himalayan region is characterized by diverse ethnic groups, which have developed their own cultures based on available natural resources, giving rise to a cultural diversity on par with the high level of biological diversity found in the region. Amongst the high landers of Himalaya making and use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources is very common. Traditionally, Bhotiya tribal community of Uttaranchal State in Western Himalaya u...

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The ingredients and the method of preparing starter mixture (Ranu Dabai ) and the fermentation of boiled rice for production of rice beer (Jhara or Harhia) have been recorded as it is practiced by the Oraon and Santhal workers in Terai Tea Gardens. In addition to the use of five core plants (Oryza sativa, Coccinia grandis, Plumbago zeylanica, Vernonia cinerea and Clerodendrum viscosum), tribals use quite a few more plants to modify the taste and/or colour of Jhara.

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The aboriginal communities in the hilly and mountainous Tons Valley have traditionally had recourse to Soor - a traditional alcoholic beverage to cope with adverse climatic conditions and also on ceremonial occasions as well as festivals. This paper describes the indigenous method of preparing Soor. It also explores the role of Soor in the life and culture of aboriginal people.

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Traditional fermented foods and beverages are very popular in the tribal and rural areas of Himachal Pradesh. A number of fermented foods and beverages were identified and the traditional fermentation processes were studied. Some of the popular fermented foods and beverages were analysed for their microbiological characteristics. The fermented products that are unique to the tribal and rural belts of Himachal are Bhaturu, Siddu, Chilra, Manna, Marchu, Bagpinni, Seera, Dosha, Sepubari, Sura, Chha...

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Bhotiya communities inhabiting the higher altitudes of the Central Himalayas use traditional tea throughout the year and consider it very energetic and nutritive for health. A variety of wild plants and their different parts, i.e. bark of Taxlis baccata subsp. wallichiana, dry leaves of Bergenia ligulata gum of and fresh leaves of Origanum vulgare, are used in traditional tea preparation. Among the species used in traditional tea preparation, T. baccata is consumed maximum, followed by B. ligula...

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Morchella esculenta is an important mushroom belonging to the family Helvellaceae and is locally known as Guchhi. It is found in the forest between 1800 and 3600 masl and is locally sold to middlemen and traders at 5000 per kg. It is cooked as food and used in medicine and health care system by the traditional societies and also considered important for clinical use. It is noticed that the local people set the ground on fire assuming that such a practice will improve its yield but it may have ne...

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From time immemorial the people of Manipur use Yu for medicine, relaxant and offerings. It is a distilled product of the fermented local rice. The technology of the preparation of Yu is a traditional one and the product is a source of income generation to the poorer sections of people. The technology is amenable for upgradation in a scientific way. Yu is a strong solvent for many important active constituents of medicinal plants, whose actions play a potent role in the traditional medicine. The ...

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Himachal Pradesh presents anthropological, cultural, environmental and topographical diversity. Its reflection is seen in the variations of architecture of houses, clothing styles, food and food habits. The variations in availability of raw materials, environmental conditions clubbed with the time tested traditional knowledge and wisdom have made the people of different regions of this hill state to formulate, develop and perpetuate the consumption of a wide range of traditional foods and bevera...

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The Karbis have an age old tradition of preparing Hor Alank (rice beer) by fermenting cooked rice with locally prepared yeast culture called Thap and distilling the alcohol called Hor Arak from the beer. Thap is traditionally prepared from leaves of Croton joufra Roxb. and uncooked rice. Highly concentrated alcohol in small quantities has been used among rural masses to cure dysentery, pharyngitis and cholera; while hor alank is used as preservative and for flavouring dried fish (manthu). The pa...

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Some traditional fermented foods consumed by people of Lahaul and Spiti area of Himachal Pradesh were explored microbiologically and documented. Chilra, Jhan chang, Babru, Bhaturu and Seera were the main food products made from cereals. These products were prepared by using traditional / natural inoculum, i.e. khameer/ malera or phab as a starter culture. All the fermented foods were acidic in nature. Microbiological examination of these food products and their source of inoculum revealed the do...

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The paper describes the various traditional fermented foods of Naga tribes, their method of preparation, uses and the potential for improving using modern biotechnological tools.

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Learning about edible plants, processing of foods and medicine using location specific wisdom and conservation of food related resources has been in the large part due to incremental and cumulative learning among the societies living in close connection with nature. Looking to the importance of location specific traditional knowledge in processing of foods, a study was conducted among Monpa tribe of Thembang and Dirang circle of West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh. Data were collected usin...

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Kiad, popular local liquor plays an important role associated with various socio-cultural life of the Pnar tribe of Jaintia hills district. The paper highlights the indigenous method of preparation of the popular local liquor.

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Balam, a wheat based starter culture, is used in several fermentation processes practiced by Bhotiya community of high altitude of Uttaranchal Himalaya. A total number of 32 microbial cultures were isolated from nine samples of Balam. Two species of Gram-positive spore forming bacteria (belonging to genus Bacillus) and three of yeasts (Saccharmycopsis fibuligera, Kluyveromyces maxianus, and Sacharomyces sp.) dominated the microflora of Balam. The fermentation causing microbes exhibited wide rang...

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The Northeastern region of India, with various ethnic groups, offers an excellent opportunity for ethnological studies. The paper deals with the observations of ethnological significance of traditional fermented food products prepared by some tribes of Arunachal Pradesh. Fermented foods are important and inseparable constituents of food consumed by these tribes and play a vital role in their indigenous traditional life style.

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The traditional foods processed and prepared by women of Northeastern region are intimately connected to their sociocultural, ecological, spiritual life and health. The processing and preparation of ethnic foods not only demonstrate the creativity and treasure of food heritage of tribal women but also their incremental learning to sustain the life and ecosystem as a whole. Looking to the diversities in ethnic foods, an attempt has been made to explore the ethnic foods made of local soybean, bamb...

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Biopreservation of perishable vegetables is a native skill of Northeast Indian women. Lactic acid fermentation is the actual mechanism involve in the biopreservation process of perishable vegetable and bamboo shoots. Some ethnic fermented vegetables of Northeast India are gundruk, sinki, goyang, inziangsang, khalpi, anishi, etc. and ethnic fermented bamboo shoot products are mesu, soidon, soibum, soijim, ekung, eup, hiring, and lung-siej

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The Nepali communities of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal and Bhutan prepare a cereal-based fermented food, Selroti using their indigenous knowledge. This paper is aimed to document the traditional knowledge of the ethnic Himalayan people on preparation of Selroti and its ethnical importance.

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Ethnic people of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China (Tibet) prepare various types of indigenous meat products using their traditional knowledge. Some of these ethnic meat products such as sausages and dried or smoked meats are sold in local markets contributing to local economy. There is no literature on traditional processing of indigenous meat products of the Himalayas. The paper is aimed to document the traditional knowledge of the ethnic Himalayan people on preparation o...

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The work relates to Pnar tribe of Jaintia Hills district, Meghalaya, whose main occupation is agriculture. Even today they depend on plant species as indicators, such as Butea buteiformis (Voigt) Grier. & Long, Castanopsis indica A. DC., Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) DC., Phoenix humilis Royle ex Becc. & Hook. f., Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gord., Quercus serrata Thunb., Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. for systematizing steps they followed season wise for achieving the best productivity of rice and oth...

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Farmers in Ladakh (North-eastern part of J&K State) are still following the agronomic practices of crop production based on astrological facts of Lotho (Tibetan almanac), yet there is no systematic study or very few ever attempted to see the rationality of the ancient knowledge system. Like Indian Panchang (the religious calendar), the Tibetan Lotho also has a mathematical base for predicting the meteorological occurrences. An attempt has been made through this study to check the rationality of ...

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There exist a sound Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) among Karbis relating to prediction of annual seasons using flora and fauna and physical factors as indicators. Floral characters include leaf fall, formation of new leaves, flowering, fruiting and ripening, formation of tubers, etc. while faunal characters include courtship and mating, egg laying and hatching, aggressiveness, appearance of a particular species and many more. Physical factors comprise of moon, temperature, wind, rainfall, day...

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Folk people of Tripura, a small state of Northeast India, rely on their own traditional knowledge of phenological indicators for predicting the weather, to help plan their agroforestry activities and for disaster prevention. One such prediction relates to the phenology of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L., night-flowering jasmine, which helps them to forecast the onset of heavy rainfall. During 2007-2009, a comprehensive study was initiated to document the predictive accuracy of this indicator, throug...

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The method used by local and indigenous peoples for predicting rainfall and other weather conditions solely on the basis of bio-indicators – the phenology of plants and behavior of animals – is coined as a new term: Presage Biology. Some of these activities of floral and faunal diversity are described in their application to predict oncoming rain, based a literature review as well as personal observations of present author as well as other reference sources pertaining to India and different part...

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This paper reports on a total of 10 plant species of different families which are used as indicators in forecasting weather, in predicting natural calamities, or as taboos or signals of bad omens, among the Meitei community of Manipur state in North eastern India. These plants belong to dicot (6 species), monocot (3 species) and pteridophyte (single species) and are both cultivated (5 species) and grown wildly (rest 5 species). The four species namely, Alocasia indica, Brassica campestris, Hibis...

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The tribal peoples of Mizoram formerly forecasted the weather through applications of long-standing Traditional Ecological Knowledge. In this study, 16 distinct bioindicators for weather forecasting based were documented working with tribal peoples. The bioindicators were based mainly on the recognition of unique situations, the behaviour of insects, birds and mammals, characteristics of plants, and location, timing and patterns of clouds, lightning, wind, moon, sun and stars. The successful app...

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The paper presents four plants used as an agricultural season indicator by Mao Naga tribe of Manipur, India. Agriculture is the main occupation of the tribe and they have a unique way of knowing plantation season for different crops by observing the flowering of some plants. The indicator plants are peach (Prunus persica), wild cherry (P. carmesina), camel foot (Bauhinia purpurea) and dancing girl (Mantisia spathulata). The information on plants used as season indicators may help understanding t...

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Latest TKS Added

Ethnobotanical uses of piscicidal plants

Harvesting of fish using piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants has been a common practice by the tribal people of Nagaland. The present study documents the piscicidal plants and their usage based on the information acquired from the local community. Many of these plants besides piscicidal property possess other therapeutic properties which are used in traditional medicines. Seventeen piscicidal plants which are traditionally used for fish catching and in preparation of local medicine from the state of Nagaland have been recorded, along with plant parts, viz. roots, bark, leaves, fruits and seeds. The paper enumerates and discusses the piscicidal and ethnobotanical utilization of these plants and their bio-active compounds. Some of these plants may have application in fish nursery management by local farmers substituting for rotenone.


Read more  Add/Update Info
  • IHBT

    Palampur

  • Kashmir University
  • GBPIHED

    Almora

  • CAZARI

    Jodhpur

  • Doon University

    Dehradun

  • WII

    Dehradun

  • NEHU

    Shillong

  • JNU

    Delhi

  • IIM

    Ahmedabad

  • Vigyan Prasar

    Noida

Indigenous peoples & Local communities have demanded equivalent protection for their traditional knowledge